The density of exosomes varies from 1. The biogenesis of exosomes begins with the internalisation of molecules via endocytosis . Once internalised, endocytosed molecules are either recycled to the PM or trafficked to multivesicular bodies MVBs . Apoptotic bodies : ABs are released from fragmented apoptotic cells and are 50—5, nm in diameter . ABs are formed about during the process of programmed cell death or apoptosis, and represent the fragments of dying cells . Similar to ectosomes, the expression of PS on the membrane surface has been shown to be a key characteristic of ABs  , .
A compendium of reviews in biochemistry and molecular biology published in the second half of 1990.
Recent studies have highlighted the role of EVs in intercellular communication  —  , vaccine and drug delivery  —  , and suggested a potential role in gene vector therapy  and as disease biomarkers . More than three decades of research has advanced our basic understanding of these extracellular organelles and has generated large amounts of multidimensional data  , . Importantly, none of the molecular data in published articles is easily searchable . With the immense interest in EVs and advances in high-throughput techniques, the data explosion will only increase.
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An online compendium of heterogeneous data will help the biomedical community to exploit the publicly available datasets and accelerate biological discovery . Existing databases are not comprehensive. Described initially in  , the database has been visited by more than 16, unique users . However, only exosomal studies as reported by the authors are catalogued in ExoCarta. With the confusion in terminologies and inefficiency of the purification protocols to clearly segregate each class of EVs  ,  , it is critical to build a repository with data from all classes of EVs to understand more about the molecular repertoire of the various classes of EVs and their biological functions.
This was the rationale for starting the Vesiclepedia online compendium for EVs. The main criterion for manual curation was the presence of these vesicles in the extracellular microenvironment EVs as approved by the investigators who undertook the research. At this juncture, the EVs are named as per the curated article or submitting author, as the nomenclature is yet to be standardized .
Vesiclepedia was built using ZOPE, an open source content management system. Python a portable, interpreted, object oriented programming language was used in the three-tier system to connect the web interface with a MySQL database. Under the experiment description, the sample source including the tissue name or cell line name, EV isolation procedures, and floatation gradient density as reported in the study are provided to the users. EV proteins are mapped onto their protein physical interactors along with the protein interaction identification method and PubMed identifier.
At this juncture, funding for databases is largely non-existent in many parts of the world. To overcome funding-related limitations and to keep the database updated, it is essential to involve the scientific community in annotating the data.
Community annotation will significantly ease the burden of the curators who maintain and update the databases. Whilst community annotation is the permanent solution to keep the database updated, it seldom happens without a clear and transparent mechanism. It has to be noted that data annotation can be regulated at two levels: i principal investigators voluntarily contributing data and ii peer-reviewed journals mandating data deposition before publication.
Currently available community annotation tools don't have a continuous data deposition arrangement with an investigator. Additionally, only few journals mandate the deposition of data to public repositories before acceptance of a manuscript. To this end, we have initiated a community annotation project through Vesiclepedia that involves members of the EV research community 53 laboratories from 20 countries: Table 1. Community annotation via Vesiclepedia happens through the founding members who agree to the conditions listed in Box 2.
On the basis of the agreement of community participation, members will submit their data automatically to Vesiclepedia before or after publication Figure 1.
By instituting this mechanism the datasets will be continuously deposited to Vesiclepedia. However, a non-member can also be appointed as a referee in which case the data might not be submitted to Vesiclepedia. The Vesiclepedia-data capture team will work along with the researchers to make the data submission as easy as possible. All of these data were obtained from independent studies that were published over the past several years. Based on the agreement of community participation, members will submit their data automatically to Vesiclepedia before and after publication.
Alternatively, a non-member can also be appointed as a referee in which case the data might not be submitted to Vesiclepedia. A non-member can also submit data directly to Vesiclepedia. ExoCarta will be active even after the release of Vesiclepedia and will become a primary resource for high-quality exosomal datasets.
Data deposited to ExoCarta can also be accessed through Vesiclepedia; however, only high quality exosomal datasets deposited to Vesiclepedia can be accessed through ExoCarta.
A compendium of reviews in biochemistry and molecular biology published in the first half of
With the launch of Vesiclepedia, we expect to have an organised data deposition mechanism. We expect active participation from the EV research community, along with the addition of new members and numerous heterogeneous datasets. All datasets submitted by EV researchers will be listed in the credits page along with the investigator details. Abstract Extracellular vesicles EVs are membraneous vesicles released by a variety of cells into their microenvironment. Introduction A growing body of research has implicated extracellular vesicles EVs , membraneous sacs released by a variety of cells, in diverse physiological and patho-physiological conditions  — .
Box 1. Download: PPT. Box 2. Conclusions and Future Directions ExoCarta will be active even after the release of Vesiclepedia and will become a primary resource for high-quality exosomal datasets. References 1. Nat Rev Immunol 9: — View Article Google Scholar 2. Immunol Lett — View Article Google Scholar 3. J Proteomics — View Article Google Scholar 4. Leukemia — View Article Google Scholar 5. The present members are listed on the web.
The initial recommendations for any topic are always prepared by experts in the subject area, but are subsequently studied by the nomenclature committees in an effort to harmonize them with recommendations in related areas of biochemistry, or indeed in chemistry and other disciplines. Although this step often appears unnecessary to experts in a restricted area of the subject, its importance emerges when one attempts to present information on a broader scale or to a broader audience.
Further review is required after the nomenclature committees are satisfied with any recommendations, as the International Unions, which have ultimate responsibility for any publication, need to be satisfied that they represent the views of a broad range of experts.
The actual review procedures of the two Unions differ somewhat, but their aims are the same, and they also have the additional consequence that preparing any document is inevitably slow.
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Even the most rapidly produced documents, such as the Nomenclature for Incompletely Specified Bases in Nucleic Acid Sequences noted above, which encountered no serious obstacles on the way to approval, typically take at least two years. To avoid arriving at conflicting recommendations the nomenclature committees maintain close relations with such bodies and during the existence of the present committees they have always included present or former members of CNOC among their members. S Boyce. Apart from Enzyme Nomenclature, discussed below, recommendations of the nomenclature committees are published in the primary research literature.
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Many documents appear also in other journals, and any journal wishing to republish a document can normally obtain reproduction-quality proofs from the European Journal of Biochemistry, to avoid the need for re-setting. However, it is not obligatory to use these proofs, and journals that prefer to set the type themselves may do so without any copyright complications. Others will be added as time permits. Contact Site Search. JCBN Newsletters can be found at JCBN Newsletters Purpose of the committees The purpose of the committees is to facilitate communication of biochemical information by encouraging scientists to use generally understood terminology.