Provides up-to-date information about a physical topic of great interest Covers theoretical as well as experimental aspects Addresses both professional and graduate levels see more benefits. Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover. Buy Softcover. Rent the eBook. FAQ Policy. Geometrical optics refer to light propagation in terms of rays. The ray in geometric optics is an abstraction, orinstrument, useful in approximating the paths along which light propagates in certain classes of circumstances. Geometrical optics is often simpli ed by making the paraxial approximation, or "small angle approximation.
Geometrical optics does not account for certain optical e ects such as di raction and interference. This simpli cation is useful in practice; it is an excellent approximation when the wavelength is smallcompared to the size of structures with which the light interacts. The techniques are particularly useful indescribing geometrical aspects of imaging, including optical aberrations. General relativity or general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by AlbertEinstein in and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a uni ed description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the curvature of space-time is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is speci ed by the Einstein eld equations, a system of partial di erential equations.
Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity is one of the towering achievements of 20th-century physics. Einstein proposed that objects such as the sun andthe Earth change this geometry. In the presence of matter and energy it can evolve, stretch and warp, forming ridges, mountains and valleys that cause bodies moving through it to zigzag and curve. So although Earth appears to be pulled towards the sun by gravity, there is no such force. It is simply the geometry of space-time around the sun telling Earth how to move.
The general theory of relativity has far-reaching consequences.
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It not only explains the motion of the planets; it can also describe the history and expansion of the universe, the physics of black holes and the bending of light from distant stars and galaxies. Mechanics concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent e ects of the bodies on their environment. During the early modern period, scientists such as Khayaam, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton, laid the foundation for what is now known as classical mechanics.
Classical mechanics was the rst branch of Physics to be discovered, and is the foundation upon which all other branches of Physics are built. Moreover, classical mechanics has many important applications in other areas ofscience, such as Astronomy, Chemistry, Geology, and Engineering. Classical mechanics is also of great signi -cance outside the realm of science. After all, the sequence of events leading to the discovery of classicalmechanics--starting with the ground-breaking work of Copernicus, continuing with the researches of Galileo,Kepler, and Descartes, and culminating in the monumental achievements of Newton--involved the complete overthrow of the Aristotelian picture of the Universe, which had previously prevailed for more than a millennium, and its replacement by a recognizably modern picture in which humankind no longer played a privileged role.
When atoms are excited they emit light of certain wavelengths which correspond to di erent colors. Theemitted light can be observed as a series of colored lines with dark spaces in between; this series of colored lines is called a line or atomic spectra. Each element produces a unique set of spectral lines. Since no two elements emit the same spectral lines, elements can be identi ed by their line spectrum.
As the atomic electron energy levels are unique to each element, the lines in a spectrum emission or absorption can be used to identify the elements present in the source a star, say or gas between the source and us e. The light electronic transitions in atoms produces may not be in the visual part of the electromagnetic spectrum, but for atoms that are neutral or have lost only one or two electrons, most lines are in the UV, visual, or near infrared.
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For highly ionized atoms, the lines are found in the extreme UV or x-ray region. Quantum electrodynamics, commonly referred to as QED, is a quantum eld theory of the electromagneticforce. Because the behavior of atoms and molecules is primarily electromagnetic in nature, all of atomic physics can be considered a test laboratory for the theory. QED applies to all electromagnetic phenomena associated with charged fundamental particles such as electrons and positrons, and the associated phenomena such as pair production, electron-positron annihilation, Compton scattering, etc.
It was used to precisely model some quantum phenomena which had no classical analogs, such as the Lamb shift and the anomalous magneticmoment of the electron. QED was the rst successful quantum eld theory, incorporating such ideas as particle creation and annihilation into a self-consistent framework.
Mathematical physics refers to development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics. The mathematical physics is concerned with problems in statistical mechanics, atomic and molecular physics, quantum eld theory, and, in general, with the mathematical foundations of theoretical physics.
This includes such subjects as quantum mechanics both nonrelativistic and relativistic , atomic and molecular physics, disorder e ects in condensed matter, the existence and properties of the phases of model ferromagnets, the stability of matter, the theory of symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum eld theory, and mathematical developments in functional analysis, algebra and modern probability theory, to which such subjects lead.
Thermodynamics is the eld of physics that deals with the relationship between heat and other properties such as pressure, density, temperature, etc. Speci cally, thermodynamics focuses largely on how a heat transfer is related to various energy changes within a physical system undergoing a thermodynamic process.
Such processes usually result in work being done by the system and are guided by the laws of thermodynamics. Each law leads to the de nition of thermodynamic properties which help us to understand and predict the operation of a physical system. The heat of a material is understood as a representation of the energy contained within the particles of that material.
This is known as the kinetic theory of gases, though the concept applies in varying degrees to solids and liquids as well.
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The heat from the motion of these particles can transfer into nearby particles, and therefore into other parts of the material or other materials, through a variety of means. Electricity and magnetism are manifestations of a single underlying electromagnetic force. Electromagnetism is a branch of physical science that describes the interactions of electricity and magnetism, both as separate phenomena and as a singular electromagnetic force. A magnetic eld is created by a moving electric currentand a magnetic eld can induce movement of charges electric current.
The rules of electromagnetism alsoexplain geomagnetic and electromagnetic phenomena by explaining how charged particles of atoms interact. There is much symmetry between electricity and magnetism. It is possible for electricity to give rise to magnetism, and symmetrically for magnetism to give rise to electricity as in the exchanges within an electric transformer. It is an exchange of just this kind that constitutes electromagnetic waves. These waves, although they don't need a medium of propagation, are slowed when traveling through a transparent substance.
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The advancement of science depends in general on the interplay between experimental studies and theory. Insome cases, theoretical physics adheres to standards of mathematical rigor while giving little weight to experiments and observations. Theoretical physicists use mathematics to describe certain aspects of Nature. Sir Isaac Newton was the rst theoretical physicist, although in his own time his profession was called "natural philosophy".
The main purpose of theoretical physics is to understand physical phenomena. Accurate understanding is possible only using mathematical models. In the best case, experimental observations can be explained using only a small number of basic assumptions. Using the models it is possible to calculate the properties of the system under di erent conditions and predict new phenomena. Today's theoretical physicists are often working on the boundaries of known mathematics, sometimes inventing new mathematics as they need it, like Newton did with calculus.
Semiconductors are materials which have a conductivity between conductors generally metals and nonconductors or insulators. Semiconductors can be pure elements, such as silicon or germanium, or compounds such as gallium arsenide or cadmium selenide. Semiconductor devices are all around us. They can be found in just about every commercial product we touch, from the family car to the pocket calculator.
Semiconductor devices are contained in television sets, portable radios, stereo equipment, and much more. Science and industry also rely heavily on semiconductor devices. Research laboratories use these devices in all sorts of electronic instruments to perform tests, measurements, and numerous other experimental tasks.
Industrial control systems such as those used to manufacture automobiles and automatic telephone exchanges also use semiconductors. Even today heavy-duty versions of the solid-state recti er diode are being use to convert large amounts of power for electric railroads. Of the many di erent applications for solid-state devices, space systems, computers, and data processing equipment are some of the largest consumers.
Polymer physics is the eld of physics that studies polymers, their uctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerization of polymers and monomers respectively. Polymers are substances containing a large number of structural units joined by the same type of linkage. These substances often form into a chain-like structure. Polymers in the natural world have been around since the beginning of time. Starch, cellulose, and rubber all possess polymeric properties. Man-made polymers have been studied since Today, the polymer industry has grown to be larger than the aluminum, copper and steel industries combined.
Polymers already have a range of applications that far exceeds that of any other class of material available to man. Current applications extend from adhesives, coatings, foams, and packaging materials to textile and industrial bers, composites, electronic devices, biomedical devices, optical devices, andprecursors for many newly developed high-tech ceramics. Applied mechanics is a branch of the physical sciences and the practical application of mechanics.
Appliedmechanics describes the response of bodies solids and uids or systems of bodies to external forces. Someexamples of mechanical systems include the ow of a liquid under pressure, the fracture of a solid from anapplied force, or the vibration of an ear in response to sound.
A practitioner of the discipline is known as a mechanician. Applied mechanics bridges the gap between physical theory and its application to technology. As such, applied mechanics is used in many elds of engineering, especially mechanical engineering. In this context, it is commonly referred to as engineering mechanics. Much of modern engineering mechanics is based on Isaac Newton's laws of motion while the modern practice of their application can be traced back to Stephen Timoshenko, who is said to be the father of modern engineering mechanics.
Wave mechanics refers to the mathematical description of atomic and subatomic particles in terms of their wave characteristics. What characteristics, properties, or behaviors are shared by the phenomena that we typically characterize as being a wave? How can waves be described in a manner that allows us to understand their basic nature and qualities? A wave can be described as a disturbance that travels through a medium from one location to another location.
Wave motion transfers energy from one point to another, which displace particles of the transmission medium—that is, with little or no associated mass transport. Waves consist, instead, of oscillations or vibrations of a physical quantity , around almost xed locations. Waves are described by a wave equation which sets out how the disturbance proceeds over time. The mathematical form of this equation varies depending on the type of wave.
Further, the behavior of particles in quantum mechanics are described by waves. In addition, gravitational waves also travel through space, which are a result of a vibration or movement in gravitational elds. Seeger, L. Geometrical optics describes light propagation in terms of rays. The ray in geometric optics is an abstraction, or instrument, useful in approximating the paths along which light propagates in certain classes of circumstances.
This book emphasizes a vergence approach to geometrical and visual optics, reinforcing its fundamental utility in clinical practice. Richard, S. General relativity is a scientific theory describing how matter, energy, time, and space interact. This book includes full discussions of many problem related to general relativity. Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems. Biophysics covers all scales of biological organization, from molecular to organismic and populations.
This book begins by explaining molecular and ionic interactions, movements, excitation and energy transfer, and the self-organization of supramolecular structures. Kemron, D. Mechanics is an area of science concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
Classical mechanics is one of the two major sub-fields of mechanics, along with quantum mechanics. Classical mechanics is concerned with the set of physical laws describing the motion of bodies under the influence of a system of forces. Atomic spectroscopy is the study of the electromagnetic radiation absorbed and emitted by atoms. Atoms are made up of particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons, which are responsible for the mass and charge of atoms. Atomic structure is the concept of an atom as a central positively charged nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons surrounded by a number of electrons.
This book presents the fundamentals of atomic spectra and atomic structure. Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. It applies scientific methodologies to understand the most fundamental principles of nature: matter and energy, and how they interact. This book presents the common techniques of applied mathematics that are often used in theoretical physics.
Thermodynamics is the branch of science concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. It states that the behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics, irrespective of the composition or specific properties of the material or system in question. The laws of thermodynamics are explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics.
Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering. This book deals with the problems in thermodynamics. Khan, S. Electricity is the presence and flow of electric charge.
Its best-known form is the flow of electrons through conductors such as copper wires. Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. This book provides a thorough understanding of the concept of all types of numerical problems in electricity and magnetism.
It also covers all the standard introductory topics, such as electrostatics, magnetism, circuits, electromagnetic waves, and electric and magnetic fields in matter. Theoretical physics is a branch of physics which employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.
This is in contrast to experimental physics, which uses experimental tools to probe these phenomena. Many disciplines within physics fall under the umbrella of theoretical physics because they involve the design of formulas which may not be able to be empirically tested. This book presents the fundamentals of theoretical physics. Polymer physics is the field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerization of polymers and monomers respectively.
This book deals with modern theory of polymer physics. It describes basic concepts and methods to discuss the statistical properties of the assembly of chain-like molecules. A wave is an oscillation accompanied by a transfer of energy that travels through medium. Frequency refers to the addition of time. This book presents the introductory concepts of mechanics and waves. It describes the response of bodies or systems of bodies to external forces. Applied mechanics is useful in formulating new ideas and theories, discovering and interpreting phenomena, and developing experimental and computational tools.
This book presents the mathematical foundations of applied mechanics. Nin, M. Wave mechanics is the branch of theoretical physics that mathematically represents subatomic particles as waves in fields, as in the theory of quantum electrodynamics. This book presents the basics of wave mechanics. Nanotechnology is the predominant basis which is presently responsible for numerous cutting edge and pioneering functional systems on a molecular scale where quantum mechanical effects are vital. An entirely new generation of biological sensors, molecular imaging, solar cells, photo detectors, transistors and other optoelectronic devices have been made possible due to the direct use of phenomena such as quantum correlation, quantum entanglement, and quantum tunneling.
Indeed, quantum effects can enable higher sensitivity and resolution than conventional sensors. Humanity can expect substantial improvements in their quality of life as a direct result of the advances in quantum-based nanotechnology integrations into biomedical and microbiology applications, including superior nano-sized drug delivery systems; cancer detection and treatment; DNA detection; and dental digital imaging. A new generation quantum-based photo detectors, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, Nitrogen-vacancy centers, Graphene and Silicon carbide nanodevices are also opening the door for a new era of information technology with the realization of powerful quantum computing.
Wave motion, propagation of disturbances? Most familiar are surface waves on water, but both sound and light travel as wavelike disturbances, and the motion of all subatomic particles exhibits wavelike properties. The study of waves therefore forms a topic of central importance in all physical science and engineering. Wave Motion is devoted to the cross fertilization of ideas, and to stimulating interaction between workers in various research areas in which wave propagation phenomena play a dominant role.
The description and analysis of wave propagation phenomena provides a unifying thread connecting diverse areas of engineering and the physical sciences such as acoustics, optics, geophysics, seismology, electromagnetic theory, solid and fluid mechanics. A quantum system is a portion of the whole Universe which is taken under consideration to make analysis or to study for quantum mechanics pertaining to the wave-particle duality in that system and everything outside this system i. This book provides comprehensive treatment of modern quantum measurement and measurementbased quantum control, which are vital elements for realizing quantum technology.
Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the mechanics of fluids and the forces on them. Fluid mechanics has a wide range of applications, including for mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, geophysics, astrophysics, and biology. This book offers comprehensive topical coverage, with varied examples and problems, application of visual component of fluid mechanics. A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
This book covers all the standard introductory topics, such as magnetism, electromagnetic waves, and magnetic fields in matter and also focuses on laser. Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists. This book explains the fundamentals of mathematical and computational physics. In physics, a nonlinear system, in contrast to a linear system, is a system which does not satisfy the superposition principle?
Complex systems is a new field of science studying how parts of a system give rise to the collective behaviors of the system, and how the system interacts with its environment. This book describes the modern unified study of nonlinear and complex systems. Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. High energy physics is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. This book focuses on nuclear and high energy physics.
Thermal physics is the combined study of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. Statistical mechanics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies, using probability theory, the average behavior of a mechanical system made up of a large number of equivalent components where the microscopic realization of the system is uncertain or undefined.
This book introduces concepts of thermal physics and statistical mechanics from a unified view. Radiation physics is the branch of physics that studies the effects of radiation on matter. This field has been instrumental in providing improved manufacturing processes, nuclear energy, and advanced medical diagnostic and treatment options. With particular emphasis on radiation protection and dosimetry, this book deals with statistical solutions to problems inherent in health physics measurements and decision making.
Velinova, Maria E. In this book, we provide a collection of research articles about basic concepts of group theory and its applications in physics. The contents have been chosen with the aim to highlight general features and methods that prove the power of group theory in several fields of the physics, such that, classical mechanics, nonlinear and stochastic systems, quantum mechanics and thermo-fluid dynamics.
In particular, it will be shown different applications of Lie? This book provides a summary of important works in the field of the physics of macromolecular solids and liquids. The papers report the research results about transition mechanisms, structure-property relationships, the physics of polymer solutions and melts, glassy and amorphous solids, and individual polymer molecules.
Yonezawa, F. This book, 'The Physics of Metal — Nonmetal Transitions', explores the mechanisms so far discovered which cause the M-NM transition and presents a systematic discussion of them. All the mechanisms are discussed in terms of energy bands, and the band theory is introduced and explained in chapter 2. Once chapters 1 and 2 have been assimilated, the remaining chapters can be read independently of each other if required.
The mechanisms discussed therein include the Peierls transition, the Bloch-Wilson transitions — types I and II respectively — the second of which was discovered by the author and her students. Subsequent chapters cover the Anderson transition and the Mott transition, and each chapter includes not only traditional theories, but also updated information about more recent research. Franklin, Scott V. Granular systems arise in a variety of geological and industrial settings, from landslides, avalanches, and erosion to agricultural grains and pharmaceutical powders. Understanding the underlying physics that governs their behavior is the key to developing effective handling and transport mechanisms as well as appropriate environmental policies.
Handbook of Granular Materials presents foundational techniques used to investigate granular systems, examples of their use in contemporary research, and extensions to granular-like systems that greatly expand the realm of study. The book provides guidance on how to conduct research in granular materials and explores promising directions for new research.
The first several chapters cover various methods used by contemporary researchers to investigate granular materials. Subsequent chapters delve into broader themes of investigation, focusing on results rather than methodology. The final chapters describe three extended systems of granular media: suspensions, emulsions and foams, and colloids. Sattler, Klaus D. Each chapter addresses the fundamental properties, growth mechanisms, processing and functionalization of a particular nanocarbon.
The first volume covers graphene, fullerenes, nanotubes and nanodiamonds. The second volume focuses on nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanofibers, nanoporous structures and nanocomposites. Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook, Vol. The Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook contains extensive, interdisciplinary coverage of carbon nanomaterials, encompassing the full scope of the field—from physics, chemistry, and materials science to molecular biology, engineering, and medicine—in two comprehensive volumes. This setup allows for quick and easy search, making the Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook: Graphene, Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Nanodiamonds, Volume I a must-have reference for scientists and engineers.
This setup allows for quick and easy search, making the Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook: Nanoparticles, Nanocapsules, Nanofibers, Nanoporous Structures, and Nanocomposites a must-have reference for scientists and engineers. Shohet, J. This encyclopedia covers all aspects of plasma technology from the fundamentals to a range of applications across a large number of industries and disciplines.
Topics covered include nanotechnology, solar cell technology, biomedical and clinical applications, electronic materials, sustainability, and clean technologies. The book bridges materials science, industrial chemistry, physics, and engineering, making it a must have for researchers in industry and academia, as well as those working on application-oriented plasma technologies. The CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured.
As such, it is a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to nanotechnology. The book examines the design, application, and utilization of devices, techniques, and technologies critical to research at the atomic, molecular, and macromolecular levels ranging from 1 to nanometers. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including nanomaterials, nanocatalysts, nanoceramics, nanocrystals, carbon nanotubes, drug delivery, nanopolymers, nanoparticles, nanocoatings, and nanomedicine.
The material is presented in a concise manner and has been updated to reflect the latest applications and research findings. Entries are organized alphabetically, making information easy to find. While coverage is comprehensive, each topic is presented concisely with a wealth of illustrative material and an accompanying eBook providing full-color figures and images. Gaseous photomultipliers are defined as gas-filled devices capable of recording single ultraviolet UV and visible photons with high position resolution.
Used in a variety of research areas, these detectors can be paired with computers to treat and store imaging information of UV-light. Position-Sensitive Gaseous Photomultipliers: Research and Applications explores the advancement of gaseous detectors as applied for single photon detection.
Emphasizing emerging perspectives and new ways to apply gaseous detectors across research fields, this research-based publication is an essential reference source for engineers, physicists, graduate-level students, and researchers.
Inguscio, M. The topics of the school identify major new directions: Quantum gases with long range interactions, either due to strong magnetic dipole forces, due to Rydberg excitations, or, for polar molecules, due to electric dipole interactions; quantum gases in lower dimensions; quantum gases with disorder; atoms in optical lattices, now with single-site optical resolution; systems with non-trivial topological properties, e. Fermi gases with strong interactions, spinor Bose-Einstein condensates and coupled multi-component Bose gases or Bose-Fermi mixtures continue to be active areas.
The current status of several of these areas is systematically summarized in this volume. Likos, C. The primary aim of the school was to cover the most exciting modern aspects of self-assembly in soft condensed matter physics, and to enable Ph. Subjects covered include: colloids with directional bonding; pathways of self-organization; self-assembly hydrodynamics; polymer structure and dynamics; liquid-crystal colloid dispersions; and self-organizing nanosystems.
The proceedings also include two reprints from Reviews of Modern Physics, and will be of interest to both students and experts in the field. Bish, Robert L. Mortenson, Juliana H. Electromagnetism is a branch of physics which involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force usually shows electromagnetic fields, such as electric fields, magnetic fields, and light. The electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature.
The electromagnetic force plays a major role in determining the internal properties of most objects encountered in daily life. This book discusses phenomena associated with electricity and magnetism. Although these are two apparently distinct topics, but there actually is a deep connection between them. Kinetic Theory, Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics. Statistical physics is a branch of physics that uses methods of probability theory and statistics, and particularly the mathematical tools for dealing with large populations and approximations, in solving physical problems.
It can describe a wide variety of fields with an inherently stochastic nature. This book gives introduction to topics such as kinetic theory, equilibrium statistical mechanics and the theory of fluctuations from a modern perspective. Highlights include a Galilean dialogue on the mean field and competing theories of the glass transition, a wide-ranging survey of colloidal glasses, and experimental as well as theoretical treatments of the relatively new field of dense granular flows.
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